Flow of Fluids:
Types of manometers, Reynold’s number and its significance, Bernoulli’s theorem and its applications. Energy
losses, orifice meter, venturimeter, pitot tube and rotometer.
Objectives, mechanisms & laws governing size reduction, factors affecting size reduction, principles,
construction, working, uses, merits and demerits of hammer mill, ball mill, fluid energy mill, edge runner mill &
end runner mill.
Objectives, applications & mechanisms of size separation. Official standards of powders, sieves. Size
separation-principles, construction, working, uses, merits and demerits of sieve shaker, cyclone separator, air
separator, bag filter & elutriation tank.
Objectives, applications & heat transfer mechanisms. Fourier’s law, heat transfer by conduction, convection &
radiation. Heat interchangers & heat exchangers.
Objectives, applications and factors influencing evaporation, differences between evaporation and other heat
process. Principles, construction, working, uses, merits and demerits of steam jacketed kettle, horizontal tube
evaporator, climbing film evaporator, forced circulation evaporator, multiple effect evaporator & economy of
multiple effect evaporator.
Basic principles and methodology of simple distillation, flash distillation, fractional distillation, distillation under
reduced pressure, steam distillation & molecular distillation.
Objectives, applications & mechanisms of drying process. Measurements & applications of equilibrium
moisture content, rate of drying curve. Principles, construction, working, uses, merits and demerits of tray
dryer, drum dryer, spray dryer, fluidized bed dryer, vacuum dryer, freeze dryer.
Objectives, applications & factors affecting mixing, Difference between solid and liquid mixing, mechanism
of solid mixing, liquids mixing and semisolids mixing. Principles, construction, working, uses, merits and
demerits of double cone blender, twin-shell blender, ribbon blender, sigma blade mixer, planetary mixers,
propellers, turbines, paddles & silverson emulsifier.
Objectives, applications, theories & factors influencing filtration, filter aids, filter medias. Principle, construction,
working, uses, merits and demerits of plate & frame filter, filter leaf, rotary drum filter, meta filter & cartridge
filter, membrane filters and seitz filter.
Objectives, principle & applications of centrifugation. Principles, construction, working, uses, merits and
demerits of Perforated basket centrifuge, non-perforated basket centrifuge, semi continuous centrifuge &
Materials of Pharmaceutical Plant Construction, Corrosion and its Prevention:
Factors affecting during materials selected for Pharmaceutical plant construction. Theories of corrosion, types
of corrosion and their prevention. Ferrous and nonferrous metals, inorganic and organic non metals, basic of
material handling systems.