SIA

b-pharmacy (PCI) II year / II sem

New Syllabus (R17)

B.Pharmacy (Semester-IV) SET OF 5 SUBJECTS (As Per the Syllabus Prescribed by (PCI) Pharmacy Council of India) 2020 Edition

B.Pharmacy (Semester-IV) SET OF 5 SUBJECTS (As Per the Syllabus Prescribed by (PCI) Pharmacy Council of India) 2020 Edition

1. A Textbook of Pharmaceutical Organic Chemistry-III
2. A Textbook of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry-I
3. A Textbook of Physical Pharmaceutics-II
4. A Textbook of Pharmacology-I
5. A Textbook of Medicinal Chemistry-I

New Syllabus (R17)

B.Pharmacy (Semester-IV) All-in-One (As Per the Syllabus Prescribed by (PCI) Pharmacy Council of India) 2021 Edition

B.Pharmacy (Semester-IV) All-in-One (As Per the Syllabus Prescribed by (PCI) Pharmacy Council of India) 2021 Edition

SUBJECTS COVERED

1. Medicinal Chemistry-I
2. Pharmaceutical Organic Chemistry-III
3. Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry-I
4. Pharmacology-I
5. Physial Pharmaceutics-II.

New Syllabus (R17)

A Textbook of Pharmaceutical Organic Chemistry-III, B.Pharmacy (Semester-IV) As Per the Latest Syllabus of Pharmacy Council of India

A Textbook of Pharmaceutical Organic Chemistry-III, B.Pharmacy (Semester-IV) As Per the Latest Syllabus of Pharmacy Council of India

SYLLABUS

Unit-I

Stereo Isomerism: Optical isomerism – Optical activity, enantiomerism, diastereoisomerism, meso compounds. Elements of symmetry, chiral and achiral molecules. DL system of nomenclature of optical isomers, sequence rules, RS system of nomenclature of optical isomers. Reactions of chiral molecules. Racemic modification and resolution of racemic mixture. Asymmetric synthesis: Partial and absolute.

Unit-II

Geometrical Isomerism: Nomenclature of geometrical isomers (Cis Trans, EZ, Syn Anti systems) Methods of determination of configuration of geometrical isomers. Conformational isomerism in Ethane, n-Butane and Cyclohexane. Stereo isomerism in biphenyl compounds (Atropisomerism) and conditions for optical activity. Stereospecific and stereoselective reactions.

Unit-III

Heterocyclic Compounds: Nomenclature and classification. Synthesis, reactions and medicinal uses of following compounds/derivatives: Pyrrole, furan, and Thiophene. Relative aromaticity and reactivity of Pyrrole, furan and thiophene.

Unit-IV

Synthesis, reactions and medicinal uses of following compounds/derivatives Pyrazole, imidazole, oxazole and thiazole. Pyridine, quinoline, isoquinoline, acridine and indole. Basicity of pyridine. Synthesis and medicinal uses of pyrimidine, purine, azepines and their derivatives.

Unit-V

Reactions of Synthetic Importance: Metal hydride reduction (NaBH4 and LiAlH4), Clemmensen reduction, Birch reduction, Wolff Kishner reduction. Oppenauer-oxidation and Dakin reaction. Beckmanns rearrangement and Schmidt rearrangement. Claisen-Schmidt condensation.

New Syllabus (R17)

A Textbook of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry-I, B.Pharmacy (PCI) IV-Semester, As Per the Latest Syllabus of Pharmacy Council of India

A Textbook of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry-I, B.Pharmacy (PCI) IV-Semester, As Per the Latest Syllabus of Pharmacy Council of India

SYLLABUS

Unit-I

Introduction to Pharmacognosy
(a) Definition, history, scope and development of pharmacognosy.
(b) Sources of Drugs – Plants, animals, marine and tissue culture.
(c) Organized drugs, unorganized drugs (dried latex, dried juices, dried extracts, gums and mucilages, oleoresins and oleo- gum -resins).
Classification of Drugs
Alphabetical, morphological, taxonomical, chemical, pharmacological, chemo and serotaxonomical classification of drugs
Quality control of Drugs of Natural Origin
Adulteration of drugs of natural origin. Evaluation by organoleptic, microscopic, physical, chemical and biological methods and properties.
Quantitative microscopy of crude drugs including lycopodium spore method, leaf constants, camera lucida and diagrams of microscopic objects to scale with camera lucida.

Unit-II

Cultivation, Collection, Processing and Storage of Drugs of Natural Origin Cultivation and collection of drugs of natural origin. Factors influencing cultivation of medicinal plants. Plant hormones and their applications. Polyploidy, mutation and hybridization with reference to medicinal plants.Conservation of medicinal plants.

Unit-III

Plant Tissue Culture
Historical development of plant tissue culture, types of cultures, nutritional requirements, growth and their maintenance. Applications of plant tissue culture in pharmacognosy. Edible vaccines

Unit-IV

Pharmacognosy in Various Systems of Medicine
Role of pharmacognosy in allopathy and traditional systems of medicine namely, Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha, Homeopathy and Chinese systems of medicine.
Introduction to secondary metabolites
Definition, classification, properties and test for identification of alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, tannins, volatile oil and resins.

Unit-V

Study of biological source, chemical nature and uses of drugs of natural origin containing following drugs.
Plant Products
Fibers - Cotton, jute and hemp.
Hallucinogens, teratogens and natural allergens.
Primary Metabolites
General introduction, detailed study with respect to chemistry, sources, preparation, evaluation, preservation, storage, therapeutic use and commercial utility as pharmaceutical aids and/or medicines for the following primary metabolites.
Carbohydrates: Acacia, agar, tragacanth, honey Proteins and Enzymes
Gelatin, casein, proteolytic enzymes (papain, bromelain, serratiopeptidase, urokinase, streptokinase, pepsin).
Lipids(Waxes, Fats, Fixed oils) Castor oil, chaulmoogra oil, wool fat, bees wax.
Marine Drugs
Novel medicinal agents from marine sources.

New Syllabus (R17)

A Textbook of Physical Pharmaceutics-II, B.Pharmacy (Semester-IV) As Per the Latest Syllabus of Pharmacy Council of India

A Textbook of Physical Pharmaceutics-II, B.Pharmacy (Semester-IV) As Per the Latest Syllabus of Pharmacy Council of India

SYLLABUS

Unit-I

Colloidal Dispersions: Classification of dispersed systems and their general characteristics, size & shapes of colloidal particles, classification of colloids and comparative account of their general properties. Optical, kinetic & electrical properties. Effect of electrolytes, coacervation, peptization and protective action.

Unit-II

Rheology: Newtonian systems, law of flow, kinematic viscosity, effect of temperature, non-Newtonian systems, pseudoplastic, dilatant, plastic, thixotropy, thixotropy in formulation, determination of viscosity, capillary, falling sphere, rotational viscometers. Deformation of Solids: Plastic and elastic deformation, Heckel equation, stress, strain and elastic modulus.

Unit-III

Coarse Dispersions: Suspension, interfacial properties of suspended particles, settling in suspensions, formulation of flocculated and deflocculated suspensions. Emulsions and theories of emulsification, microemulsion and multiple emulsions, Stability of emulsions, preservation of emulsions, rheological properties of emulsions and emulsion formulation by HLB method.

Unit-IV

Micromeritics: Particle size and distribution, mean particle size, number and weight distribution, particle number, methods for determining particle size by different methods, counting and separation method, particle shape, specific surface, methods for determining surface area, permeability, adsorption, derived properties of powders, porosity, packing arrangement, densities, bulkiness & flow properties.

Unit-V

Drug Stability: Reaction kinetics: Zero, pseudo-zero, first and second order, units of basic rate constants, determination of reaction order. Physical and chemical factors influencing the chemical degradation of pharmaceutical product: temperature, solvent, ionic strength, dielectric constant, specific & general acid base catalysis, simple numerical problems. Stabilization of medicinal agents against common reactions like hydrolysis & oxidation. Accelerated stability testing in expiration dating of pharmaceutical dosage forms, photolytic degradation and its prevention.

New Syllabus (R17)

A Textbook of Pharmacology-I, B.Pharmacy (Semester-IV) As Per the Latest Syllabus of Pharmacy Council of India

A Textbook of Pharmacology-I, B.Pharmacy (Semester-IV) As Per the Latest Syllabus of Pharmacy Council of India

SYLLABUS

Unit-I

1. General Pharmacology
(a) Introduction to Pharmacology- Definition, historical landmarks and scope of pharmacology, nature and source of drugs, essential drug concept and routes of drug administration, agonists, antagonists( competitive and non-competitive), spare receptors, addiction, tolerance, dependence, tachyphylaxis, idiosyncrasy, allergy.
(b) Pharmacokinetics- Membrane transport, absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of drugs. Enzyme induction, enzyme inhibition, kinetics of elimination.

Unit-II

General Pharmacology
(a) Pharmacodynamics- Principles and mechanisms of drug action, receptor theories and classification of receptors, regulation of receptors, drug-receptor interactions, signal transduction mechanisms, G-protein coupled receptors, ion channel receptors, transmembrane enzyme linked receptors, transmembrane JAK-STAT binding receptor and receptors that regulate transcription factors, dose-response relationship, therapeutic index, combined effects of drugs and factors modifying drug action.
(b) Adverse drug reactions.
(c) Drug interactions (pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic).
(d) Drug discovery and clinical evaluation of new drugs -Drug discovery phase, preclinical evaluation phase, clinical trial phase, phases of clinical trials and pharmacovigilance.

Unit-III

2. Pharmacology of drugs acting on Peripheral Nervous System
(a) Organization and function of ANS.
(b) Neurohumoral transmission,co-transmission and classification of neurotransmitters.
(c) Parasympathomimetics, parasympatholytics, sympathomimetics, sympatholytics.
(d) Neuromuscular blocking agents and skeletal muscle relaxants (peripheral).
(e) Local anaesthetic agents.
(f) Drugs used in myasthenia gravis and glaucoma.

Unit-IV

3. Pharmacology of Drugs Acting on Central Nervous System
(a) Neurohumoral transmission in the CNS. Special emphasis on importance of various neurotransmitters like with GABA, glutamate, glycine, serotonin, dopamine.
(b) General anaesthetics and pre-anesthetics.
(c) Sedatives, hypnotics and centrally acting muscle relaxants.
(d) Anti-epileptics.
(e) Alcohol and disulfiram.

Unit-V

3. Pharmacology of Drugs Acting on Central Nervous System (a) Psychopharmacological agents: Antipsychotics, antidepressants, anti anxiety agents, anti manics and hallucinogens.
(b) Drugs used in Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease.
(c) CNS stimulants and nootropics.
(d) Opioid analgesics and antagonists.
(e) Drug addiction, drug abuse, tolerance and dependence.

New Syllabus (R17)

A Textbook of Medicinal Chemistry-I, B.Pharmacy (PCI) IV-Semester, As Per the Latest Syllabus of Pharmacy Council of India

A Textbook of Medicinal Chemistry-I, B.Pharmacy (PCI) IV-Semester, As Per the Latest Syllabus of Pharmacy Council of India

SYLLABUS

Unit-I

Introduction to Medicinal Chemistry
History and development of medicinal chemistry
Physico-chemical properties in relation to biological action Ionization, solubility, partition coefficient, hydrogen bonding, protein binding, chelation, bioisosterism, optical and geometrical isomerism.
Drug metabolism
Drug metabolism principles- Phase-I and Phase-II. Factors affecting drug metabolism including stereochemical aspects.

Unit-II

Drugs acting on Autonomic Nervous System
Adrenergic Neurotransmitters
Biosynthesis and catabolism of catecholamine. Adrenergic receptors (Alpha & Beta) and their distribution. Sympathomimetic agents: SAR of Sympathomimetic agents
Direct acting: Nor-epinephrine, epinephrine, phenylephrine*, dopamine, methyldopa, clonidine, dobutamine, isoproterenol, terbutaline, salbutamol*, bitolterol, naphazoline, oxymetazoline and xylometazoline.
• Indirect acting agents: Hydroxyamphetamine, pseudoephedrine, propylhexedrine.
• Agents with mixed mechanism: Ephedrine, metaraminol.
Adrenergic Antagonists:
Alpha adrenergic blockers: Tolazoline*, phentolamine, phenoxybenzamine, prazosin, dihydroergotamine, methysergide.
Beta adrenergic blockers: SAR of beta blockers, propranolol*, metibranolol, atenolol, betazolol, bisoprolol, esmolol, metoprolol, labetolol, carvedilol.

Unit-III

Cholinergic neurotransmitters:
Biosynthesis and catabolism of acetylcholine. Cholinergic receptors (Muscarinic & Nicotinic) and their distribution.
Parasympathomimetic agents: SAR of parasympathomimetic agents.
Direct acting agents: Acetylcholine, carbachol*, bethanechol, methacholine, pilocarpine. Indirect acting/ Cholinesterase inhibitors (reversible & irreversible): Physostigmine, neostigmine*, pyridostigmine, edrophonium chloride, tacrine hydrochloride, ambenonium chloride, isofluorphate, echothiophate iodide, parathione, malathion.
Cholinesterase reactivator: Pralidoxime chloride.
Cholinergic Blocking agents: SAR of cholinolytic agents solanaceous alkaloids and analogues: atropine sulphate, hyoscyamine sulphate, scopolamine hydrobromide, homatropine hydrobromide, ipratropium bromide*.
Synthetic cholinergic blocking agents: Tropicamide, cyclopentolate hydrochloride, clidinium bromide, dicyclomine hydrochloride*, glycopyrrolate, methantheline bromide, propantheline bromide, benztropine mesylate, orphenadrine citrate, biperidine hydrochloride, procyclidine hydrochloride*, tridihexethyl chloride, isopropamide iodide, ethopropazine hydrochloride.

Unit-IV

Drugs acting on Central Nervous System A. Sedatives and Hypnotics:
Benzodiazepines: SAR of benzodiazepines, chlordiazepoxide, diazepam*, oxazepam, chlorazepate, lorazepam, alprazolam, zolpidem.
Barbiturtes: SAR of barbiturates, barbital*, phenobarbital, mephobarbital, amobarbital, butabarbital, pentobarbital, secobarbital.
Miscelleneous:
Amides & imides: Glutethmide. Alcohol & their carbamate derivatives: Meprobomate, ethchlorvynol. Aldehyde & their derivatives: Triclofos sodium, paraldehyde. B. Antipsychotics
Phenothiazeines: SAR of Phenothiazeines - Promazine hydrochloride, chlorpromazine hydrochloride*, triflupromazine, thioridazine hydrochloride, piperacetazine hydrochloride, prochlorperazine maleate, Trifluoperazine hydrochloride.
Ring Analogues of Phenothiazeines: Chlorprothixene, Thiothixene, Loxapine succinate, Clozapine. Fluro buterophenones: Haloperidol, Droperidol, Risperidone. Beta amino ketones: Molindone hydrochloride.
Benzamides: Sulpieride.
C. Anticonvulsants: SAR of Anticonvulsants, mechanism of anticonvulsant action
Barbiturates: Phenobarbitone, Methabarbital.
Hydantoins: Phenytoin*, Mephenytoin, Ethotoin
Oxazolidine diones: Trimethadione, Paramethadione
Succinimides: Phensuximide, methsuximide, ethosuximide* urea and
monoacylureas: Phenacemide, carbamazepine*
Benzodiazepines: Clonazepam
Miscellaneous: Primidone, valproic acid , Gabapentin, Felbamate.

Unit-V

Drugs acting on Central Nervous System General anesthetics:
Inhalation anesthetics: Halothane*, methoxyflurane, enflurane, sevoflurane, isoflurane, desflurane. Ultra short acting barbitutrates: Methohexital sodium*, thiamylal sodium, thiopental sodium.
Dissociative anesthetics: Ketamine hydrochloride.*
Narcotic and non-narcotic analgesics Morphine and related drugs: SAR of morphine analogues, morphine sulphate, codeine, meperidine hydrochloride, Anilerdine hydrochloride, diphenoxylate hydrochloride, loperamide hydrochloride, fentanyl citrate*, methadone hydrochloride*, propoxyphene hydrochloride, pentazocine, levorphanol tartarate.
Narcotic antagonists: Nalorphine hydrochloride, levallorphan tartarate, naloxone hydrochloride.
Anti-inflammatory agents: Sodium salicylate, aspirin, mefenamic acid*, meclofenamate, indomethacin, sulindac, tolmetin, zomepriac, diclofenac, ketorolac, ibuprofen*, naproxen, piroxicam, phenacetin, acetaminophen, antipyrine, phenylbutazone.