**Syllabus**

Group - 13: Structure of diborane and higher Boranes (B

**Unit-II**

Bond polarization: Factors influencing the polarization of covalent bonds, electro negativity – inductive effect. Application of inductive effect,

(a) Basicity of amines

(b) Acidity of carboxylic acids

(c) Stability of carbonium ions.

Resonance - Mesomeric effect, application to,

(a) Acidity of phenol.

(b) acidity of carboxylic acids and basicity of anilines. Stability of carbocations, carbanions and free radicals. Hyper conjugation and its application to stability of carbonium ions, free radicals and alkenes.

Alkanes: Methods of preparation: From Grignard reagent, Kolbe synthesis. Chemical reactivity - inert nature, free radical substitution, Halogenation example- reactivity, selectivity and orientation. Alkenes: Preparation of alkenes (with mechanism)

(a) By dehydration of alcohols

(b) Dehydrohalogenation of alkyl halides

(c) By dehalogenation of 1,2 dihalides.

Zaitsev’s rule. Properties: Anti-addition of halogen and its mechanism. Adding of HX, Markonikov’s rule, addition of H

Introduction to aromaticity: Huckel’s rule – Benzene, Naphthalene and Anthracene. Reactions - General mechanism of electrophilic substitution, mechanism of nitration, sulphonation and halogenation, Friendel Craft’s alkylation and acylation. Orientation of aromatic substitution - Definition of ortho, para, and meta directing groups. Ring activating and deactivating groups with examples. Orientation

(i) Activating group: Amino, methoxy and alkyl groups.

(ii) Deactivating groups - nitro, nitrile, carbonyl, carboxylic acid, sulphonic acid and halo groups.

**Unit-III**

Block body radiation, heat capacities of solids, Rayleigh Jeans law, Planck’s radiation law, photoelectric effect, Limitations of classical mechanics, Compton effect, de Broglie’s hypothesis. Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle.

Deviation of real gases from ideal behavior. van der Waals equation of state. Critical phenomenon. PV isotherms of real gases, continuity of state. Andrew’s isotherms of CO

Liquefaction of gases:

(i) Linde’s method based on Joule Thomson effect

(ii) Claude’s method based on adiabatic expansion of a gas.

Liquid State:

Intermolecular forces, structure of liquids (qualitative description). Structural differences between solids, liquids and gases. Surface tension and its determination using stalagmometer. Viscosity of a liquid and determination of coefficient of viscosity using Ostwald viscometer. Effect of temperature on surface tension and coefficient of viscosity of a liquid (qualitative treatment only).

Solutions:

Liquid - liquid mixtures, ideal liquid mixtures, Raoult’s and Henry’s laws. Non ideal systems. Azeotropes: HCl-H

**Unit-IV**

Anion analysis: Theory of sodium carbonate extract, classification and reactions of anions - CO

Isomerism: Definition of isomers. Classification of isomers: Constitutional and Stereoisomers - definition and examples. Constitutional isomers: chain, functional and positional isomers. Stereoisomers: enantiomers and diastereomers – definitions and examples. Representation of stereoisomers – Wedge, Fischer projection, Sawhorse, Newman formulae.

Conformational Analysis: Classification of stereoisomers based on energy. Definition and examples Conformational and configurational isomers. Conformational analysis of ethane, n-butane, 1,2- dichloroethane , 2-chloroethanol. Cyclic compounds: Baeyer’s strain theory, Conformational analysis of cyclohexane.

Cis-trans isomerism: E-Z-nomenclature.

Laws of Crystallography

(i) Law of Constancy of interfacial angles

(ii) Law of Symmetry-Symmetry elements in crystals

(iii) Law of Rationality of indices.

Definition of space lattice, unit cell. Bravais Lattices and Seven crystal systems (a brief review). X-ray diffraction by crystals; Derivation of Bragg’s equation. Determination of structure of NaCl, KCl and CsCl (Bragg’s method and Powder method).

**Syllabus**

Partial Differentiation: Introduction-Functions of two variables-Neighbourhood of a
point (a; b) - Continuity of a Function of two variables, Continuity at a point - Limit
of a Function of two variables - Partial Derivatives - Geometrical representation of a
Function of two Variables - Homogeneous Functions.

Theorem on Total Differentials – Composite Functions – Differentiation of Composite
Functions - Implicit Functions-Equality of f_{xy}(a; b) and f_{yx}(a; b) -Taylor’s theorem for a
function of two Variables-Maxima and Minima of functions of two variables Lagrange’s
Method of undetermined multipliers.

Curvature and Evolutes : Introduction-Definition of Curvature - Radius of curvature –
Lenth of Arc as a fuction, Derivative or arc - Radius of curvature - Certesian equations
- Newtonian method - Centre of curvature - Chord of curvature.
Evolutes: Evolutes and Involutes-Properties of the evolutes:
Envelopes: One Parameter Family of Curves-Consider the family of straight lines -
Definition - Determination of envelope.

Lengths of Plane Curves: Introduction - Expression for the length of curves y = f(x) -
Expressions for the length of arcs x = f(y); x = f(t), y = f(φ), r = f(θ)
Volumes and Surfaces of Revolution: Introduction-Expression for the volume
obtained by revolving about either axis-Expression for the volume obtained by revolving
about any line- Area of the surface of the frustum of a cone-Expression for the surface
of revolution-Pappus Theorems -Surface of revolution.