SIA

OSMANIA UNIVERSITY BSC I YEAR / I SEM

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Al-Qira At Al-Arabia Al-Osmania (For B.A, B.Sc, B.Com,B.B.A &B.S.W First Year) Second Language Arabic Paper-I, Semester-I Latest 2021-22 Edition

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Fundamentals Of Information Technology (Data Science Paper-I), B.SC I-Year I-Sem, As Per The CBCS 2020-21 Syllabus Latest 2021-22 Edition

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Basic Of Biochemistry (Applied Nutrition & Public Health Paper-1) B.Sc I-Year I-Sem As Per The (O.U) CBCS 2019-20 Syllabus Latest 2021-22 Edition

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Chemistry Paper-I B.Sc I-Year I-Sem As per the (O.U) CBCS (2019-20) Syllabus Latest 2021-22 Edition

Chemistry Paper-I B.Sc I-Year I-Sem As per the (O.U) CBCS (2019-20) Syllabus Latest 2021-22 Edition

Syllabus

Unit-I
Inorganic Chemistry
1. Chemical Bonding: Ionic solids - lattice and solvation energy, solubility of ionic solids, Fajan’s rule, Polarity and polarizability of ions. VSPER Theory - Common hybridization-sp, sp2, sp3, sp3d2 and sp3d3, shapes of molecules. Molecular orbital theory: Shapes and sign convention of atomic orbitals. Modes of bonds. Criteria for orbital overlap. LCAO concept. π and σ overlapping. Concept of types of molecular orbitals- bonding, antibonding and non bonding. MOED of homonuclear diatomics - H2, N2, O2– , O22– , F2 (unhybridized diagrams only) and heteronuclear diatomics CO, CN, NO, NO+ and HF. Bond order, stability and magnetic properties.
2. P-Block Elements 1
Group - 13: Structure of diborane and higher Boranes (B4H10 and B5H9), Boron nitrogen compounds (B3N3H6 and BN), Lewis acid nature of BX3. Group - 14: Carbides-Classification - ionic, covalent, interstitial -. Structures and reactivity. Industrial applications. Silicones - Classification - straight chain, cyclic and cross-linked. Group - 15: Nitrides - Classification - ionic, covalent and interstitial. Reactivity - hydrolysis. Reactions of hydrazine, hydroxyl amine, phosphazenes.

Unit-II

Organic Chemistry
1. Structural Theory in Organic Chemistry
Bond polarization: Factors influencing the polarization of covalent bonds, electro negativity – inductive effect. Application of inductive effect,
(a) Basicity of amines
(b) Acidity of carboxylic acids
(c) Stability of carbonium ions.
Resonance - Mesomeric effect, application to,
(a) Acidity of phenol.
(b) acidity of carboxylic acids and basicity of anilines. Stability of carbocations, carbanions and free radicals. Hyper conjugation and its application to stability of carbonium ions, free radicals and alkenes.
2. Acyclic Hydrocarbons
Alkanes: Methods of preparation: From Grignard reagent, Kolbe synthesis. Chemical reactivity - inert nature, free radical substitution, Halogenation example- reactivity, selectivity and orientation. Alkenes: Preparation of alkenes (with mechanism)
(a) By dehydration of alcohols
(b) Dehydrohalogenation of alkyl halides
(c) By dehalogenation of 1,2 dihalides.
Zaitsev’s rule. Properties: Anti-addition of halogen and its mechanism. Adding of HX, Markonikov’s rule, addition of H2O, HOX, H2SO4 with mechanism and addition of HBr in the presence of peroxide (anti – Markonikov’s addition). Oxidation (cis – additions) – hydroxylation by KMnO4, OsO4, anti addition- peracids (via epoxidation), hydroboration, ozonolysis – location of double bond, Dienes – Types of dienes, reactions of conjugated dienes – 1, 2 and 1, 4 addition of HBr to 1, 3–butadiene and Diels – Alder reaction. Alkynes: Preparation by dehydrohalogenation of vicinal dihalides, dehalogenation of tetrahalides. Physical Properties: Chemical reactivity – electrophilic addition of X2, HX, H2O (tautomerism), Oxidation (formation of enediol, 1, 2 diones and carboxylic acids) and reduction (Metal-ammonia reduction, catalytic hydrogenation).
3. Aromatic Hydrocarbons
Introduction to aromaticity: Huckel’s rule – Benzene, Naphthalene and Anthracene. Reactions - General mechanism of electrophilic substitution, mechanism of nitration, sulphonation and halogenation, Friendel Craft’s alkylation and acylation. Orientation of aromatic substitution - Definition of ortho, para, and meta directing groups. Ring activating and deactivating groups with examples. Orientation
(i) Activating group: Amino, methoxy and alkyl groups.
(ii) Deactivating groups - nitro, nitrile, carbonyl, carboxylic acid, sulphonic acid and halo groups.

Unit-III

1. Atomic structure and elementary quantum mechanics
Block body radiation, heat capacities of solids, Rayleigh Jeans law, Planck’s radiation law, photoelectric effect, Limitations of classical mechanics, Compton effect, de Broglie’s hypothesis. Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle.
2. Gaseous State
Deviation of real gases from ideal behavior. van der Waals equation of state. Critical phenomenon. PV isotherms of real gases, continuity of state. Andrew’s isotherms of CO2. The van der Waal’s equation and critical state. Derivation of relationship between critical constants and van der Waal’s constants. The law of corresponding states, reduced equation of states. Joule Thomson effect and inversion temperature of a gas.
Liquefaction of gases:
(i) Linde’s method based on Joule Thomson effect
(ii) Claude’s method based on adiabatic expansion of a gas.
3. Liquid State and Solutions
Liquid State:
Intermolecular forces, structure of liquids (qualitative description). Structural differences between solids, liquids and gases. Surface tension and its determination using stalagmometer. Viscosity of a liquid and determination of coefficient of viscosity using Ostwald viscometer. Effect of temperature on surface tension and coefficient of viscosity of a liquid (qualitative treatment only).
Solutions:
Liquid - liquid mixtures, ideal liquid mixtures, Raoult’s and Henry’s laws. Non ideal systems. Azeotropes: HCl-H2O and C2H5OH - H2O systems. Fractional distillation. Partially miscible liquids: Phenol-Water. Trimethyl amine – Water and Nicotine – Water systems.

Unit-IV

General Chemistry
1. General Principles of Inorganic Qualitative Analysis
Anion analysis: Theory of sodium carbonate extract, classification and reactions of anions - CO32–,Cl–,Br –,SO42–, PO43–,BO33–,CH3COO,NO3–. Interfering ions. Cation Analysis: Principles involved - Solubility product, common ion effect, general discussion for the separation and identification of group I individual cations [Hg22+,Ag+,Pb2+] with flow chart and chemical equations. Principle involved in separation of group II & IV cations. General discussion for the separation and identification of group II [Hg2+, Pb2+, Bi3+, Cd2+, Sb3+], III [Al3+,Fe3+], IV [Mn2+, Zn2+] individual cations with flow chart and chemical equations. General discussion for the separation and identification of group V individual cations [Ba2+, Sr2+, Ca2+] with flow chart and chemical equations. Theory of flame test. Identification of Group VI cations [Mg2+, NH4+].
2. Isomerism
Isomerism: Definition of isomers. Classification of isomers: Constitutional and Stereoisomers - definition and examples. Constitutional isomers: chain, functional and positional isomers. Stereoisomers: enantiomers and diastereomers – definitions and examples. Representation of stereoisomers – Wedge, Fischer projection, Sawhorse, Newman formulae.
Conformational Analysis: Classification of stereoisomers based on energy. Definition and examples Conformational and configurational isomers. Conformational analysis of ethane, n-butane, 1,2- dichloroethane , 2-chloroethanol. Cyclic compounds: Baeyer’s strain theory, Conformational analysis of cyclohexane.
Cis-trans isomerism: E-Z-nomenclature.
3. Solid State Chemistry
Laws of Crystallography
(i) Law of Constancy of interfacial angles
(ii) Law of Symmetry-Symmetry elements in crystals
(iii) Law of Rationality of indices.
Definition of space lattice, unit cell. Bravais Lattices and Seven crystal systems (a brief review). X-ray diffraction by crystals; Derivation of Bragg’s equation. Determination of structure of NaCl, KCl and CsCl (Bragg’s method and Powder method).

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Mathematics Paper-I (Differential and Integral Calculus) B.Sc I-Year I-Sem As Per the (O.U) CBSC 2019-20 Syllabus Latest 2021-22 Edition

Mathematics Paper-I (Differential and Integral Calculus) B.Sc I-Year I-Sem As Per the (O.U) CBSC 2019-20 Syllabus Latest 2021-22 Edition

Syllabus

Unit-1
Partial Differentiation: Introduction-Functions of two variables-Neighbourhood of a point (a; b) - Continuity of a Function of two variables, Continuity at a point - Limit of a Function of two variables - Partial Derivatives - Geometrical representation of a Function of two Variables - Homogeneous Functions.
Unit-2
Theorem on Total Differentials – Composite Functions – Differentiation of Composite Functions - Implicit Functions-Equality of fxy(a; b) and fyx(a; b) -Taylor’s theorem for a function of two Variables-Maxima and Minima of functions of two variables Lagrange’s Method of undetermined multipliers.
Unit-3
Curvature and Evolutes : Introduction-Definition of Curvature - Radius of curvature – Lenth of Arc as a fuction, Derivative or arc - Radius of curvature - Certesian equations - Newtonian method - Centre of curvature - Chord of curvature. Evolutes: Evolutes and Involutes-Properties of the evolutes: Envelopes: One Parameter Family of Curves-Consider the family of straight lines - Definition - Determination of envelope.
Unit-4
Lengths of Plane Curves: Introduction - Expression for the length of curves y = f(x) - Expressions for the length of arcs x = f(y); x = f(t), y = f(φ), r = f(θ) Volumes and Surfaces of Revolution: Introduction-Expression for the volume obtained by revolving about either axis-Expression for the volume obtained by revolving about any line- Area of the surface of the frustum of a cone-Expression for the surface of revolution-Pappus Theorems -Surface of revolution.

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