**SUBJECTS COVERED**

1. Communication Skills

2. Human Anatomy and Physiology-I

3. Pharmaceutical Analysis

4. Pharmaceutical Inorganic Chemistry

5. Pharmaceutics-I

6. Remedial Mathematics.

2. Human Anatomy and Physiology-I

3. Pharmaceutical Analysis

4. Pharmaceutical Inorganic Chemistry

5. Pharmaceutics-I

6. Remedial Mathematics.

**Syllabus**

Historical Background and Development of Profession of Pharmacy: History of profession of
pharmacy in India in relation to pharmacy education, industry and organization, pharmacy as a career,
pharmacopoeias: Introduction to IP, BP, USP and Extra Pharmacopoeia.
Dosage Forms: Introduction to dosage forms, classification and definitions.
Prescription: Definition, parts of prescription, handling of prescription and errors in prescription.
Posology: Definition, factors affecting posology. Pediatric dose calculations based on age, body weight and
body surface area.

Pharmaceutical Calculations: Weights and measures - imperial & metric system, calculations involving
percentage solutions, alligation, proof spirit and isotonic solutions based on freezing point and molecular weight.
Powders: Definition, classification, advantages and disadvantages, simple & compound powders - official
preparations, dusting powders, effervescent, efflorescent and hygroscopic powders, eutectic mixtures. Geometric
dilutions.
Liquid Dosage Forms: Advantages and disadvantages of liquid dosage forms. Excipients used in formulation
of liquid dosage forms. Solubility enhancement techniques.

Monophasic Liquids: Definitions and preparations of gargles, mouthwashes, throat paint, ear drops, nasal
drops, enemas, syrups, elixirs, liniments and lotions.
Biphasic Liquids
Suspensions: Definition, advantages and disadvantages, classification, preparation of suspensions; flocculated
and deflocculated suspensions & stability problems and methods to overcome.
Emulsions: Definition, classification, emulsifying agent, tests for the identification of type of emulsion, methods
of preparation & stability problems and methods to overcome.

Suppositories: Definition, types, advantages and disadvantages, types of bases, methods of preparations.
Displacement value & its calculations, evaluation of suppositories.
Pharmaceutical Incompatibilities: Definition, classification, physical, chemical and therapeutic incompatibilities
with examples.

Semisolid Dosage Forms: Definitions, classification, mechanisms and factors influencing dermal penetration
of drugs. Preparation of ointments, pastes, creams and gels. Excipients used in semisolid dosage forms.
Evaluation of semisolid dosages forms.

**Syllabus**

**Syllabus**

(a) Pharmaceutical Analysis

**Definition and Scope**

(i) Different techniques of analysis

(ii) Methods of expressing concentration

(iii) Primary and secondary standards

(iv) Preparation and standardization of various molar and normal solutions-oxalic acid, sodium hydroxide, hydrochloric acid, sodium thiosulphate, sulphuric acid, potassium permanganate and ceric ammonium sulphate

(b) Errors

Sources of errors, types of errors, methods of minimizing errors, accuracy, precision and significant figures.

(c) Pharmacopoeia, sources of impurities in medicinal agents, limit tests.

(i) Different techniques of analysis

(ii) Methods of expressing concentration

(iii) Primary and secondary standards

(iv) Preparation and standardization of various molar and normal solutions-oxalic acid, sodium hydroxide, hydrochloric acid, sodium thiosulphate, sulphuric acid, potassium permanganate and ceric ammonium sulphate

(b) Errors

Sources of errors, types of errors, methods of minimizing errors, accuracy, precision and significant figures.

(c) Pharmacopoeia, sources of impurities in medicinal agents, limit tests.

Theories of acid base indicators, classification of acid base titrations and theory involved in titrations of strong, weak, and very weak acids and bases, neutralization curves.

Solvents, acidimetry and alkalimetry titration and estimation of sodium benzoate and ephedrine HCl.

Mohr’s method, Volhard’s method, modified Volhard’s method, Fajan’s method, estimation of sodium chloride.

Classification, metal ion indicators, masking and demasking reagents, estimation of magnesium sulphate, and calcium gluconate.

Principle and steps involved in gravimetric analysis. Purity of the precipitate, co-precipitation and post precipitation. Estimation of barium sulphate. Basic principles,methods and applications of diazotization titrations.

(a) Concepts of oxidation and reduction.

(b) Types of redox titrations (principles and applications) Cerimetry, iodimetry, iodometry, bromatometry, dichrometry, titrations with potassium iodate.

**Syllabus**

Definition and scope of anatomy and physiology, levels of structural organization and body systems, basic life
processes, homeostasis, basic anatomical terminology.

**Cellular Level of Organization:**
Structure and functions of cell, transport across cell membrane, cell division, cell junctions. General
principles of cell communication, intracellular signaling pathway activation by extracellular signal molecule.

**Forms of intracellular signaling:**

(a) Contact-dependent

(b) Paracrine

(c) Synaptic

(d) Endocrine.

**Tissue Level of Organization:**
Classification of tissues, structure, location and functions of epithelial, muscular, nervous and connective
tissues.

(a) Contact-dependent

(b) Paracrine

(c) Synaptic

(d) Endocrine.

Heart - anatomy of heart, blood circulation, blood vessels, structure and functions of artery, vein and capillaries,
elements of conduction system of heart and heart beat, its regulation by autonomic nervous system, cardiac
output, cardiac cycle. Regulation of blood pressure, pulse, electrocardiogram and disorders of heart.

**Syllabus**

Partial Fraction: Introduction, Polynomial, Rational Fractions, Proper and Improper fractions, Partial fraction,
Resolving into Partial fraction, Application of Partial Fraction in Chemical Kinetics and Pharmacokinetics.
Logarithms: Introduction, Definition, Theorems/Properties of logarithms, Common logarithms, Characteristic
and Mantissa, worked examples, application of logarithm to solve pharmaceutical problems.
Function: Real Valued function, Classification of real valued functions,
Limits and Continuity: Introduction, Limit of a function, Definition of limit of a function ( Î – d definition)

Matrices and Determinant: Introduction matrices, Types of matrices, Operation on matrices, Transpose of a
matrix, Matrix Multiplication, Determinants, Properties of determinants, Product of determinants, Minors and
Co-Factors, Adjoint of adjugate of a square matrix, Singular and non-singular matrices, Inverse of a matrix,
Solution of system of linear equations using matrix method, Cramer's rule, Characteristic equation and roots
of a square matrix, Cayley-Hamilton theorem, Applications of Matrices in solving Pharmacokinetic equations.

Calculus

Differentiation: Introductions, Derivative of a function, Derivative of a constant, Derivative of a product of a
constant and a function, Derivative of the sum or difference of two functions, Derivative of the product of two
functions (product formula), Derivative of the quotient of two fucntions (Quotient formula) – Without Proof,
Derivative of xn w.r.tx, where n is any rational number, Derivative of ex
,. Derivative of loge x, Derivative of ax.
Derivative of trigonometric functions from first principles (Without Proof) Successive Differentiation, Conditions
for a function to be maximum or a minimum at a point. Application

Analytical Geometry

Introduction: Signs of the Coordinates, Distance formula,
Straight Line: Slope or gradient of a straight line, Conditions for parallelism and perpendicularity of two lines,
Slope of a line joining two points, Slope – intercept form a straight line
Integration: Introduction, Definition, Standard formulae, Rules of integration, Method of substitution, Method
of Partial fractions, Integration by parts, definite integrals, application.

Differential Equations: Some basic definitions, Order and degree, Equations in separable form, Homogeneous
equations, Linear Differential equations, Exact equations, Application in solving Pharmacokinetic equations
Laplace Transform: Introduction, Definitions, Properties of Laplace transform, Laplace Transforms of
elementary functions, Inverse Laplace transforms, Laplace transform of derivatives, Application to solve Linear
differential equations, Application in solving Chemical kinetics and Pharmacokinetics equations.

**Syllabus**

• Definition and characters of living organisms

• Diversity in the living world

• Binomial nomenclature

• Five kingdoms of life and basis of classification. Salient features of Monera, Protista, Fungi, Animalia and Plantae, Virus.

• Morphology of different parts of flowering plants - Root, stem, inflorescence, flower, leaf, fruit and seed.

• General anatomy of root, stem, leaf of monocotyledons and dicotyledons.

• Composition of blood, blood groups and coagulation of blood

• Composition and functions of lymph

• Human circulatory system

• Structure of human heart and blood vessels

• Cardiac cycle, cardiac output and ECG.

• Human alimentary canal and digestive glands

• Role of digestive enzymes

• Digestion, absorption and assimilation of digested food.

• Human respiratory system

• Mechanism of breathing and its regulation

• Exchange of gases, transport of gases and regulation of respiration

• Respiratory volumes.

• Modes of excretion

• Human excretory system - Structure and function

• Urine formation

• Renin angiotensin system.

• Definition and classification of nervous system

• Structure of a neuron

• Generation and conduction of nerve impulse

• Structure of brain and spinal cord

• Functions of cerebrum, cerebellum, hypothalamus and medulla oblongata.

• Endocrine glands and their secretions

• Functions of hormones secreted by endocrine glands.

• Parts of female reproductive system

• Parts of male reproductive system

• Spermatogenesis and oogenesis

• Menstrual cycle.

• Essential minerals, macro and micronutrients.

• Nitrogen metabolism, nitrogen cycle, biological nitrogen fixation.

• Autotrophic nutrition, photosynthesis, photosynthetic pigments, factors affecting photosynthesis.